Friday, 31 March 2017

Anthropology Lectures from Robert Sapolski (2011).

14 On the Limbic System
Presented by Robert Sapolski, April 30th 2010. Published February 2011.

Projections dependant on primary sensory apparatus of species, Rhinencephalon of mice, Antonio Damasio "Decarte's Error", James Papez & medial limbic circuit. Ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex, anteror cingulate part of cortex classified as part of limbic system, impulse control, myelinated in the 20's. Fimbria fornix, medial forebrain bundle.

Example of evolution, Pyramidal system vs extrapyramidal system for independant finger bending.
Tools associated with understanding the limbic system. Issues  of discovery of nuclei vs pathway.
Dopamine stimulating the pursuit of pleasure. Ventral medial hypothalamus, medial preoptic area and gender differences in size. Lateral hypothamus associated with hunger, historically was confused with aggression due to species specific behaviour. Adrenaline Shackhtar experiment on epinephrine role in emotion, epinephrine modulates (increases) the intensity of emotion. Role of autonomic nervous system, biofeedback to limbic system, meditation.

12 On the Endocrine System.
Presented by William Peterson and Tom McFadden, April 2010. Published February 2011.

Sapolski in his lectures keeps talking about Vasopressin in terms of priarie vole neurological signalling, which suggests it may have a role in pair bonding. Wikipedia suggests it has a role in pair bonding, sexual behaviour and maternal responses to stress (as an analgesic). Vasopressin has important functions in homeostasis, regulating blood pressure through artereole contraction and water reabsorbtion by the kidneys, ultimately increasing blood pressure. Focus on hypothalamic, anterior pituary  and adrenal gland axis. Role of corticotropin releasing hormone, cortisol, positive and negative feedback.

13 Advanced Neurology and Endocrinology.
Presented by Sapolski Robert (2010). Published February 2011.

The follow up lecture to 12 on the Endocrine System. Disproving Dales laws, subtle functioning of neurons, wave of excitation from different andretic spins can be blocked and flow shunted, suggests all sorts of regulation of branch points, not simple action potential and release of synaptic. neurotransmitters. Discusses anterior pituitary hormones, presence of neighborhoods within cells in anterior pituitary, multiple hormone release on the basis of cells, "neighborhoods".  Produces different activity profiles for groups of hormones.. Autosynaptic receptors have a book keeping function.

On Language
Presented by Robert Sapolski, May 21st 2010. Published February 2011.

Notes : Language use is lateralized. Broca's area is associated with language creation,  Wernickes area, language comprehension, with impairment get word salad. Arcuate fasciculus, a bundle, set of projections, axons that connects Broca's area with Wernicke's area. Sign language uses the same areas, same cognitive structures as spoken language. Right hemisphere, body posture, tone, facial expression, comprehension. Hand gestures, without visual communication are tied to motoric output through basal ganglia.

Look at ethnology. Attempts at peer influence chimpanzee language acquisition, Donald & Gua, flawed because chimpanzees don't have human vocal anatomy. Afterwards teach sign language, Chimpanzee Washoe acquired 150 signs. Washoe would sign her cognition. First sentence said between two chimpanzees "Tickle me".  Koko the gorilla, reported dreams, gossip, lie. Example of lie, Koko eats an indoor pot plant, is asked "where is the plant?" says "Bill ate the plant", told  "Humans don't eat plants", replies "Some other gorilla".

Herb Terrace (1980), wanted to disprove Noam Chompsy, named chimpanzee Nim Chimpsky. Terrace starts to argue chimpanzee not learning language, asks what are they producing? Nim not using word order, not inventing words, more words in string more meaning associated with it. Utterances not spontaneous. 1983 Terrace vs Penny Patterson. Issue absence of concrete data. Enabling Koko. No word order, not spontaneous. Messy conflict. Takes down field.

Bonobo chimp named Kanzi, doing data analysis, using embedded clauses, if then, logical progression, analogy, spontaneous, mistakes are within semantic categories. Remains only real hope for that field.

The Uniqueness of Humans Class Day Lecture 2009.
Presented by Robert Sapolski, (2009).  Published April 11, 2014

Theories : Aggession, Theory of Mind, The Golden Rule, Empathy, Culture.

Describes dopamine as focusing goal directed behaviour, an anticipation of a reward.

Why should I be nice? Game Theory- Sapolsky's abridged Stanford Behavioural Biology 2.
Presented by Robert Sapolski.  Published December 24th, 2013.
 (Someone's Christmas  Eve was used productively).

Game theory, tit for tat, signal error, trust strategies and Pavlov exploitation. Daniel Ellsberg.
Ethnological examples, vampire bats have a reciprocal altruist system. Ethnology, behaviour of Stickle Back fish and Naked Moles, closest amongst mammals to insect hives, cooperative colonies.

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